Soils of India
The soils of India are divided into the subsequent eleven major groups. These soil groups are discussed below.
1. Red Soils in India
Red color red soils are due to the presence of varied oxides of iron. they’re either formed in situ or from the products of decomposition of rocks washed to a lower level. They include soils locally referred to as red sandy soil and red alluvium. they’re mostly formed under a sub-humid climate from a variety of rocks. formations like granite, shales, etc. Their main features are a lightweight texture, porous structure, absence of time, and low soluble salts. they’re generally poor in fertility constituents like nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, and lime and are highly deficient in organic matter. they have a low base exchange capacity, and also the colloidal complex is base saturated. they’re neutral in reaction, the pH starting from 7.0 to 7.5. The characteristics of clay mineral ls kaolinite. the area of red soils is the whole of Madras and Mysore, a part of Andhra Pradesh, M.P. Orissa, and Bihar (Chota Nagpur, Birbhum (W. Bengal), Santhal Pargana (Bihar, Mirzapur, Jhansi, and Hamirpur districts of U.P. and eastern half of Rajasthan).
2. Laterite Soils in India
they’re found mostly in areas of high rainfall. they’re light in texture and have an open free draining structure. there’s no retention of water. there’s practically no horizon differentiation within the profile. they’re deficient in lime and are slight to moderately acid in reaction. The pH values from 5.0 to 6.0. they’re low in base exchange capacity. Laterite soils formed at high levels have a pale red color are highly gravelly and are poor altogether fertility constituents. if these formed a low level have a darker color probably due to an excellent accumulation of humus, a rather finer texture, and are quite well-drained.These soils are found right along the West Coast of Maharashtra, Mysore, and Kerala, on tops of hills within the Deccan, Madhya Pradesh, and in Orissa along the Eastern Ghat.
3. Black Soils in India
The black soil developed from Basaltic rock under semi-arid conditions. The soils are black or dark brown in color. They include soils locally referred to as regur or black cotton soil, deep black soil, and medium black soil. the color varies considerably alluvium soil of Narmada and Tapi is blackish brown. Their tenure ranges from sandy loam to heavy Clay Some black soil could also be porous and others could also be compact and impervious. one among the characteristic features of black soil is that it swells on wetting during the rainy season and shrinks and cracks in summers. the base exchange capacity of deep black soil is sort of high (50 to 75 meq/100g). The pH varies from 7.5to 8.5. The soil is on the entire low in fertility The soils are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. they’re rich in potash and lime. The black soils are found in parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. Rajasthan, U.P, A.P, Madras, and Mysore.
4. Alluvial Soils in India
they’re characterized by extreme depth and gray or grayish-brown color. Their texture is varied from sandy loam to clay loam. The structure is additionally variable, loose and free draining within the case of sandy soils, and compact and impervious in clayey soils. In Immature alluvial soils, there’s no distinct horizon differentiation. These soils are most fertile, they’re deficient in nitrogen phosphorus, and humus but are well supplied with lime. Their base exchange capacity is comparatively low. The pH varies from 7.0 to 8.0They are very extensive within the world covering large parts of Rajasthan, Punjab, U.P, Bihar, and W. Bengal and extend even into west Assam and north Gujarat the soils developed within the eastern parts of the Indo-Gangetic plains are, however, markedly different from those within the eastern region.
5. Desert Soils in India
Desert soils have developed in arid regions mostly under the influence of physical weathering. They are mainly sandy. They contain large amounts of soluble salts and varying proportions of lime. Desert soils have a high pH and are very poor in fertility constituents. Desert soils are found in large parts of Rajasthan, south Punjab, and in the range of Kutch. The temperature regime is very high throughout the year. The rainfall ranges from 50 cm or less than 10 cm.
6. Saline and Alkaline soils in India
These soils are developed in arid and semi-arid regions. Basin-shaped topography (poor drainage) is additionally accountable for their development. they’re mainly found within the black soil region in the south and west, in the Indo-Gangetic alluvium in the north, and in the deltaic and coastal regions right along the West and East Coast.
7. Peaty and Marshy Soils in India
They are formed in the depression under the submerged conditions and have acquired a blue color due to the presence of ferrous iron. Peaty soils are found scattered in Kerala, north Bihar, and north U.P. and have developed in humid regions as a result of the accumulation of large quantities of organic matter.
8. Terai Soils in India
Terai soils have a wet regime and high-water table conditions for most of the year. Terai soils are foothill soils and extend in strips of varying widths at the foot of The Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, U.P. Bihar, and West Bengal. Soils under natural conditions are very thickly vegetated and swampy. Several sorts of grasses and trees from the native vegetation removal make the soils become highly productive. The soils were made from materials washed down by the erosion of mountains. Their parent’s materials are of alluvial sediments and consist of hard clay.
9. Brown Hill Soils in India
These soils are formed on the hills under forests. They are mainly found in the Himalayas, on sandstones and shales. The surface soils are dark brown, loam to silty clay in texture, and acidic to neutral in reaction. These soils may be classified in order Alfisol.
10. Sub Montana Soils in India
These soils are formed in high rainfall regions of sub-Himalayan under coniferous forests. The soils are acidic in reaction. The organic matter accumulation is high and there Is an absence of free lime.
11. Mountain Meadow Soils in India
These soils occur at high elevations in the Himalayas. The soils are shallow with grass vegetation.