Cultivation of Drumstick (Moringa oleifera)


Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) is popularly known as moringa or horseradish tree. It is a medium-size tree and is known for its wide variety of uses and nutritional values. The tender leaves and immature pods are used in different culinary preparations. Pods are valued for their distinct inviting flavor. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals like iron and calcium and are a good source of protein, vitamins B and C, ß-carotene, amino acids, and various phenolics. In India, the drumstick is cultivated in 38,000 ha with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of immature pods. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Gujarat, and Maharashtra are the major drumstick-growing states.

Cultivation of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)


Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is one of the first spices used by man as a common flavoring substance. The stem, leaves, and fruits have a pleasant aroma. The whole young plant is used in preparing chutney and leaves are used for flavoring curries sauces and soups. Dry fruits are extensively used in the preparation of curry powder, pickling spices, sausage, and seasonings. In medicines, seeds are used as a carminative, refrigerant, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. The green leaves contain about 87.9% moisture, 3.3% protein, 0.6% fat, 6.5% carbohydrates, and 1.7% mineral matter. However, dry seeds have about 6.3% moisture, 1.3% protein, 0.3% volatile oil, 19.6% nonvolatile oil, 31.5% ether extract, 24.0% carbohydrates, 5.3% mineral matter and vitamin. A 175 IU/100 g.

Cultivation of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi)


Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) of the Apiaceae family, is native to India. It is grown on a large scale in Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh, and on a smaller area in Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Karnataka. India is the leading ajowan-producer and exporter in the world. During 2013-14, 26,410 tonnes of ajowan seed was produced from 39,260 ha. The seeds (botanically a fruit) are largely used as condiments in the form of an ingredient in all mixed spices and in curry powder for flavoring vegetables, pickles, soups, sausages, cheese, and other culinary preparations, and for seasoning of bread, cakes and biscuits. Traditionally, the seed is used as a spice and also as a folk remedy for indigestion, intestinal gas, arthritis, asthma, coughs, and diarrhea. It is also valued for its antispasmodic and antiseptic properties.

Cultivation of Garden pea (Pisum sativum)


Garden pea, Pisum sativum var. hortense, is an important vegetable grown throughout the world. cool-season crop, it is extensively grown in temperate zones; but restricted to cooler altitudes in the tropics and winter in the subtropics. A rich source of digestible proteins (7%), amino acids, and sugars (12%), green peas are an all-time favorite vegetable. India is the leading pea-producing country in the world. During 2013-14, it was grown in about 0.42 million ha area producing 4.01 million tonnes with the productivity of 9.5 tonnes/ha. It is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Haryana, and Bihar contributing to 90% of the total production. During 2013-14, India exported 3,146 MT of peas earning 7.65 crores to Pakistan (47%), UK (24%), Saudi Arabia (9%), and Nepal (6%).

Cultivation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)


Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculata and subsp sesquipedalis) also known as the yard-long bean is one of the most important legume vegetables. It is cultivated for its tender green long pods and also for seeds. It is a twining annual herbaceous plant. The stem is slightly ridged and glabrous. The leaves are trifoliate and alternate. Pods are long and cylindrical. Its foliage is also used as fodder or green manure. Cultivated cowpea belongs to 3 groups: common cowpea (producing 20 to 30 cm long pods with small seeds), catjang bean (producing 7 to . 13 cm long pods with 5 to 6 cm kidney-shaped seeds), and asparagus bean or yardlong bean (producing 30 to 90 cm long fleshy pods with elongated kidney-shaped, 8 to 12 mm long seeds). In India, cowpea has been known since the Vedic period, and it is grown almost throughout the country. In Kerala, Odisha, and West Bengal, it is grown as a floor crop in coconut gardens and as an intercrop in tapioca. It can be grown as a pure crop in rice fallows during rabi and summer, and also in homestead gardens throughout the year.

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Cultivation of Minor Gourds (sweet gourd, teasel gourd and spine gourd)


A number of minor gourds, viz. sweet gourd (Momordica cochinchinensis), teasel gourd (M. subangulata subsp. renigera), and spine gourd (M. dioica) are grown in certain parts of the country. These are rich in minerals and vitamins. Being bitterless and traditionally ascribed. with many medicinal properties, they are high-value vegetables mostly wild gathered or cultivated to a small extent in selected pockets as in the case of teasel gourd. All three being perennials overwintering through underground tubers, they have the potential as ratoon crops adapted to home gardens. Being dioecious in nature, maintaining an optimal sex ratio, and managing pollination is important for good fruit set in these crops. All three species are native to India.

Cultivation of Round melon or Round gourd (Praecitrullus fistulosus)


Round melon (Praecitrullus fistulosus) is also known as a round gourd, Indian squash, squash melon, and Indian baby pumpkin. It is monoecious, annual with creeping or trailing habit. The fruits are round 5-8 cm in diameter and light green or dark green with white flesh. It is an important summer vegetable cultivated extensively in north India (Western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan). The fruits contain a high proportion (93.5%) of water.

Cultivation Ivy gourd or Little-gourd (Coccinia grandis syn. Coccinia indica)


Ivy gourd or little-gourd is well known as Kundru (Coccinia grandis syn. Coccinia indica) is cultivated throughout India. It is grown for its immature fruits cooked as vegetables especially in southern, eastern, and western India. It is cultivated commercially in Chhattisgarh.

Ivy gourd is a herbaceous, semi-perennial, and dioecious creeper. Plants grow vigorously, having long stems and tuberous roots. Flowers are axillary, unisexual, usually solitary, and white. Fruits are usually ovoid, elliptical, or cylindrical in shape. Immature fruits are smooth, green to light green with or without white stripes. A 100 g edible portion of the fruit contains 12 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 3.1 g carbohydrate, 0.07 mg vitamin B1, 0.08 mg vitamin B2, 0.7 mg niacin, 15 mg vitamin C, 1.4 mg iron, and 30 mg phosphate. Young shoots are a good source of ß-carotene and protein and richer in nutrition than fruits.

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